The article, printed on Sunday, was written by a doctor who claimed that Sam was 'misguided' when she advised that women at the age of 40 should be 'thinking about' having a mammogram.
The television personality took to Instagram to hit back, writing: 'Appalling that The Age newspaper would print this.'
The article was a response to a Sunrise segment that saw Sam get her first ever mammogram. Sam revealed that she was horrified when doctors called her back in for further testing.
The 41-year-old breakfast host said, 'Immediately I thought the worst, as you tend to do. I had to do two more mammograms and an ultrasound...it was a very scary day. The test took five hours. Thankfully, I was given the all-clear.'
Armytage then revealed she planned to have a mammogram every year, adding: 'The number one thing I found out this week was that every doctor I saw said, 'I don't know why they're telling women to come in at 50, you girls should be coming in at 40.''
While Sam clarified that she 'didn't want everyone to flood the health system', she advised it was something that 'at the age of 40, you should be starting to think about'.
On Sunday, however, Fairfax published the opinion piece which claimed Sam's advice was 'foolish' and 'misguided'.
Written by a doctor and professor from the University of Sydney, Alexandra Barratt, the column stated, 'Screening tests can lead to 'over-diagnosis' - the detection of cancers that are so slow growing, they will never cause symptoms or death and are better left alone.'
Dr Barratt added: 'Screening can turn healthy women... into cancer patients who have surgery and drug and radiation treatments for a harmless cancer.'
The Age has not yet responded to Armytage.