According to royal biographer Ingrid Seward, it was a move that left him emasculated.
In her book, My Husband and I: The Inside Story of 70 Years of the Royal Marriage, Seward described Philip's reaction to the news he would not be able to pass his surname on to his children.
"I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his children," Prince Philip reportedly said.
"I’m nothing but a bloody amoeba."
The Duke of Edinburgh struggled to find his place in the Royal family, as he also sacrificed his budding naval career when Elizabeth became Queen.
According to Express, Prince Philip was recorded to have said: "Constitutionally I do not exist."
Countess Mountbatten, who was also Prince Philip’s close friend, said, "It hurt him, it really hurt him."
"He had given up everything and now this, the final insult.
"It was a terrible blow. It upset him very deeply and left him feeling unsettled and unhappy for a long while.”
It took 16 years for the Privy Council to declare that the name Mountbatten-Windsor would apply to all male descendants of the Queen and Prince Philip.
Prince Harry also honoured his grandfather by naming his firstborn son Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor.
For more royals news, check out this month's New Idea Royals magazine.